Alert 2022! Report on Conflict, Human Rights and Peacebuilding is an annual report analyzing the state of the world in terms of conflict and peacebuilding along three main axes: armed conflict, tension, gender and peace and security. The analysis of the most relevant events in 2021 and the nature, causes, dynamics, actors and consequences of the main scenarios of armed conflicts and social and political tensions in the world allows a regional comparative vision and also allows to identify global trends and elements of risks and preventive warnings for the future. In addition, the report also identifies peacebuilding opportunities or opportunities to reduce, prevent or resolve conflict.
In both cases, one of the main objectives of this report is to make available all the information, analyzes and identification of warning factors and opportunities for peace for decision-makers, those who intervene for the peaceful resolution conflicts, or those that give greater, mediated or academic attention to the many situations of political and social violence in the world.
As for the methodology, the content of this report is mainly based on a qualitative analysis of studies and information made available by many sources – United Nations, international organizations, research centres, communication media or NGOs, among others – as well as field research. in conflict-affected countries.
Some of the most relevant findings and insights from Alert 2022! report are listed below:
32 armed conflicts were reported in 2021, a slight decrease from the previous year. Most of the conflicts occurred in Africa (15), followed by Asia (nine), the Middle East (five), Europe (two) and America (one).
For the first time in a decade, high-intensity armed conflicts accounted for more than half (53%) of all cases globally.
The 17 cases of serious armed conflict in 2021 were: Cameroon (Ambazonia/North-West and South-West), Ethiopia (Tigray), Mali, Mozambique (north), Lake Chad Region (Boko Haram) , Western Sahel Region, CAR, DRC (East), DRC (East-ADF), Somalia, Sudan (Darfur), South Sudan, Afghanistan, Myanmar, Iraq, Syria and Yemen.
Almost half of the armed conflicts in 2021 took place in Africa, with a total of 15 (47%).
In the second year of the pandemic, characterized by the gradual easing of mobility restrictions, it became clear that little attention had been paid to the UN Secretary-General’s call in March 2020 to establish a ceasefire. -Global fire to focus coronavirus response efforts.
During the year, the impacts of clashes between armed actors and the indiscriminate and deliberate use of violence against civilians were amplified due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the confluence with other crises, such as than the climate emergency, which have further aggravated the precariousness and lack of protection of many populations affected by armed conflict.
There were a significant number of civilian casualties in 2021, which increased in many armed conflicts. Attacks and threats against medical personnel continued in 2021, as well as attacks against hospital infrastructure, practices considered to violate international humanitarian law.
The use of sexual and gender-based violence against civilians by armed state and non-state actors, and in particular against women and girls, continued to be reported in 2021.
According to UNHCR data, at the end of 2020 there were 82.4 million forcibly displaced people worldwide, more than double the number a decade ago.
During the year 2021, 98 socio-political crises were recorded in the world, three more than in 2020, confirming the upward trend in the number of socio-political crises recorded in recent years.
Africa was again the region with the highest number of socio-political crises (40), followed by Asia (24), the Americas (12) and Europe and the Middle East (11 each).
In 2021, the socio-political crises of high intensity were Chad, Ethiopia, Ethiopia (Oromia), Guinea,
Kenya, Mali, Morocco-Western Sahara, Nigeria, Nigeria (Biafra), Sudan, Colombia, Haiti, Mexico, Venezuela, India-China, India-Pakistan, ArmeniaAzerbaijan (Nagorno-Karabakh), Iran-USA, Israel and Israel-Syria -Lebanon.
72% of socio-political crises were linked to opposition to the internal or international policies of certain governments or to the political, social or ideological system of the State as a whole; 41% to demands for autonomy and/or identity; and 31% to disputes over control of territories and/or resources.
18 of the 32 armed conflicts that took place throughout 2021 occurred in countries where there were serious gender inequalities, with medium, high or very high levels of discrimination.
Seventy-two million children living in conflict situations are at serious risk of sexual violence, according to Save the Children.
In 2021, the number of allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse in United Nations peace operations and special political missions increased. In 2021, 20 countries involved in peace negotiations and processes had a National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security, which was supposed to promote the participation of women in these processes.
Alert 2022! identifies five opportunities for peace in Chad, between India and Pakistan, in Venezuela, between Turkey and Armenia, and regarding the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.
The report highlights six risk scenarios relating to several coups in Africa, as well as in relation to DRC-Uganda, Myanmar, Indonesia (Sulawesi), Bosnia and Herzegovina and Palestine.